Solving the problem of pipeline freezing with respect to external heat exchange
The paper proposes a solution to the problem of freezing of heating pipelines in engineering systems in buildings in emergency situations. A mathematical process model is proposed, wherein heat emissions induced by viscous friction and phase transition are taken into account. Formulas for estimating the rate of freezing have been obtained. Calculation results obtained by using numerical methods are presented. Recommendations on the proper choice of pipe-line diameters to reduce the probability of liquid freezing therein are provided as well.