Ice Loads Impact on Spillway Culverts Piers in Lithuania
On the basis of literature analysis and field investigations it was found that piers in spillway culverts suffer most from the ice impacts. Floating ice is a significant hazard to structures - jamming between piers or rubble pile development will modify the effective size of the structure and possibly increase the loads. Ice loads are generally described as ice forces or pressures acting over an area of structure. Ice loads are classified as: static loads, dynamic loads, global loads, local loads. Local ice loads from ice-structure interaction are highly irregular and very hard to model exact. The aim of this work - to evaluate ice loads formed in the ponds of Lithuania and their impact on the spillway culverts piers structures. The ice loads were analysed in this work: 1) the force of moving ice fields in contact with single pier; 2) the force of standing ice field, in the impact due wind and water drag forces; 3) the force from ice jam cutting by pier; 4) the force of ice jam in the perpendicular contact with structure front, 5) the force, which is cutting pier of the ice plug.